European Union

European Union: Origins, Structures, and Achievements

Diplomacy, European Union, Foreign Policy, International Relations

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe. Croatia became the latest member, joining on July 1, 2013. It was established with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and officially came into existence on November 1, 1993. The Headquarters of EU is located in Brussel, Belgium.

The EU has its roots in the aftermath of World War II, with the aim of fostering economic cooperation and preventing further conflict among European nations. The EU has established an internal single market by implementing a standardized legal framework applicable across all member states. Its policies are designed to facilitate the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market. Additionally, the EU focuses on legislating in justice and home affairs and upholding common policies related to trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.

The EU is guided by shared values across its member countries, emphasizing inclusion, tolerance, justice, solidarity, and non-discrimination. These values, including Human dignity, Freedom, Democracy, Equality, Rule of law, and Human Rights, are integral to the EU’s societal framework. The Lisbon Treaty and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights articulate and establish these fundamental goals and values as the foundation of the European Union.

Historical Roots and Expansion:

The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established by the Treaties of Paris (1951) and Rome (1957), respectively. The Inner Six nations – Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany – formed the original European Communities. 

Subsequent expansions welcomed the United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland (1973), Greece (1981), and Portugal and Spain (1986). The reunification of Germany in 1990 and the establishment of the European Union in 1993 marked key milestones in its development.

Values and Founding Treaties:

The EU upholds a set of common values articulated in the Lisbon Treaty and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. These values include human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law, and human rights. In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for its role in advancing peace, reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe. The Maastricht Treaty (1993) officially established European citizenship, emphasizing the shared identity and rights of EU citizens.

Institutional Framework:

The main organs of the European Union include:

  1. European Parliament (EP):
    • The directly elected legislative body of the EU.
    • Exercises legislative, budgetary, and supervisory powers.
    • Represents the interests of EU citizens.
  2. Council of the European Union:
    • Represents the governments of member states.
    • Shares legislative and budgetary powers with the European Parliament.
    • Coordinates policies and makes decisions on a wide range of issues.
  3. European Commission:
    • The executive branch of the EU.
    • Proposes legislation, implements policies, and manages the day-to-day affairs of the EU.
    • Headed by a college of commissioners.
  4. Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU):
    • Ensures the uniform interpretation and application of EU law.
    • Comprises the Court of Justice, the General Court, and specialized courts.
    • Resolves legal disputes between member states, EU institutions, businesses, and individuals.

Additionally, the European Union (EU) is typically divided into three main pillars or areas, which are often referred to as the “three pillars of the European Union.” These are:

  1. European Communities (formerly Community Pillar): This pillar includes policies related to economic integration and cooperation among member states. It primarily focuses on creating a common market and involves areas such as the free movement of goods, services, capital, and people.
  2. Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP): The CFSP involves the coordination of member states’ foreign policies and defense efforts. It aims to achieve a common approach to issues such as diplomacy, conflict prevention, crisis management, and peacekeeping.
  3. Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters (Justice and Home Affairs): This pillar focuses on cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs, particularly concerning the fight against transnational crime, terrorism, and issues related to judicial and police cooperation. Over time, with the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty, this pillar has been integrated into the broader framework of the EU, and the term “Justice and Home Affairs” has been replaced by the “Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice.”

Economic Integration and Euro Currency:

Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been eliminated, allowing for unrestricted movement of individuals, whether they are citizens or non-nationals, across the borders of 27 European countries within the EU. This region functions as a unified jurisdiction for international travel, implementing a common visa policy. The Schengen Area, named after the 1985 Schengen Agreement signed in Luxembourg, operates without internal borders.

Presently, most EU member states are part of the Schengen Area, with the exceptions of Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, and Romania. Additionally, non-EU countries such as Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein have also joined this border-free zone.

Alongside the Schengen Agreement, the EU established a monetary union in 1999 (effective in 2002), with only 19 EU countries adopting the euro currency. The creation of the EU and European citizenship occurred with the implementation of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993.

EU – India Relations

India and the European Union (EU) share a multifaceted relationship that has evolved over the years. Here are some key milestones and developments in their relations:

  1. 1994 EU-India Cooperation Agreement:
    • The foundation for the bilateral ties was laid in 1994 with the signing of the EU-India Cooperation Agreement. This agreement aimed at promoting political dialogue, economic cooperation, and cultural exchange between the two entities.
  2. 2004 Strategic Partnership:
    • In 2004, India and the EU elevated their relationship to the level of strategic partnership, reflecting the growing importance of their collaboration on various global issues.
  3. India-EU Annual Summits:
    • Annual summits have been a regular feature in India-EU relations, providing a platform for leaders to discuss and enhance cooperation on various fronts, including trade, climate change, security, and technology.
  4. India-EU Broad-Based Free Trade Agreement (BITA):
    • Negotiations for a comprehensive trade agreement, known as the Broad-Based Free Trade Agreement (BITA), have been ongoing. This idea appeared during 7th summit held in Helsinki in 2006, aiming to boost trade and economic ties by addressing various trade barriers.
  5. India-EU Trade and Investment Agreement (TIC):
    • In 2022, India and the EU reached an important milestone with the signing of the Trade and Investment Agreement (TIC). This agreement is expected to further facilitate trade and investment between the two entities by addressing tariff and non-tariff barriers.
  6. EU-India Horizontal Agreement on Civil Aviation (2018):
    • In 2018, India and the EU signed a Horizontal Agreement on Civil Aviation. This agreement promotes closer cooperation in the aviation sector, fostering better connectivity and collaboration in areas such as air safety and security.
  7. Trade Relations:
    • India is a significant trading partner for the EU, and vice versa. Both parties have mutual economic interests, and efforts have been made to strengthen trade relations through various agreements and negotiations.

India and the EU continue to collaborate on regional and global issues, including climate change, sustainable development, and counter-terrorism. Their relationship reflects the shared commitment to democracy, human rights, and multilateralism, making them important partners in the evolving geopolitical landscape.

Recent Developments and Expansion:

Brexit marked a significant event as the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020. The EU has continued to expand, with Croatia joining in 2013, and ongoing integration processes with countries such as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Georgia, and Kosovo.


The European Union, born out of the post-World War II vision of unity and cooperation, has evolved into a complex political and economic entity. Its commitment to common values, economic integration, and collaborative governance positions the EU as a key player in the global arena. As the EU continues to adapt to changing dynamics, its principles of shared sovereignty and mutual cooperation remain at the forefront of its mission for a united and prosperous Europe.

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