“Political theory is the most salient feature of politics in the past and continues to illuminate its future.”— Sheldon Wolin Introduction to Political Theory Political theory is a fundamental component of political science, recently recognized as an academic field. Historically, those involved in this discipline identified themselves as philosophers or scientists. The term “political theory” …

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Education, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Political Theory, Politics, Society

Indian Polity

The making of the Indian Constitution was deeply influenced by the colonial legacy, incorporating elements of British parliamentary practices and legal frameworks. Contributions from the national movement were pivotal, embedding principles of justice, liberty, and equality inspired by the struggle for independence and the vision of leaders like Gandhi and Nehru. Introduction The British presence …

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Constitution, Constitutionalism, Education, good governance, Indian Constitution, Indian Polity, Political Science, Politics

Political Science

Political Science is the systematic study of government, political processes, and political behavior. It explores the structure and functioning of political institutions, the dynamics of political activity, and the theoretical foundations of political systems and ideologies. Introduction to Political Science Political Science is a fundamental branch of social science that focuses on the foundations and …

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Education, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society

Politics

“Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable — the art of the next best.”— Otto von Bismarck Introduction The term “politics” originates from the Greek word “polis,” signifying ‘city’ or ‘state.’ It represents humanity’s endeavor to establish a societal order perceived as beneficial by its members. In ancient Greece, politics signified a groundbreaking …

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Identity Politics, Political Science, Politics, politics definition, politics news, r politics, r/politics, real clear politics, reddit politics

Regionalism in India

Regionalism in India Introduction: Regionalism, an intrinsic facet of India’s socio-political tapestry, delineates the profound attachment individuals harbor towards their respective regions. In a country as diverse as India, characterized by a kaleidoscope of ethnicities, religions, languages, and cultures, regionalism transcends mere geographical boundaries to emerge as a formidable force shaping political discourse and identity …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Regionalism, Regionalism in India, Society

Language and Identity Politics

Language and identity politics in India revolve around the diverse linguistic landscape, with tensions often arising over the recognition and dominance of certain languages, reflecting broader social and political dynamics. Language and Identity Politics in India Introduction: The intricate relationship between language and identity in India is a multifaceted tapestry intricately woven with historical, cultural, …

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Democracy, good governance, Identity Politics, Language and Identity Politics, Political Science, Politics, Society

Religion and Identity Politics in India

Religion and Identity Politics in India Religion serves as a complex mosaic of belief systems, cultural traditions, and ethical frameworks that intricately intertwined humanity with notions of spirituality and moral guidance. However, the classification of individuals based on their religious convictions has not only catalyzed profound conflicts on a global scale but has also engendered …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Religion and Identity Politics, Society

Tribal Politics and Movements

The term “tribe” typically suggests “a community denoting a collection of primitive, uncivilized groups under recognized leaders.” The initial discussion on tribal identity was influenced by those advocating for the integration of tribes into the national citizenry and others aiming for their absorption into the Hindu community. A tribe refers to a collective of individuals …

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Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society, Tribal Politics and Movements

Dalit Movements

Dalit movements advocate for the rights and dignity of Dalit communities, challenging caste-based discrimination and advocating for social, economic, and political equality. Dalit Movements Introduction To put it differently, the term “Dalits’ ‘ refers to the marginalized communities commonly known as Untouchables and Tribals, officially categorized as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively. Originating from …

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Caste-Based Identity Politics, Dalit Movements, Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Politics

Caste-Based Identity Politics in India

The tapestry of Indian politics is woven with the intricate threads of caste-based identity, a phenomenon deeply ingrained in the nation’s social fabric. This article seeks to delve into the historical origins, scholarly perspectives, and multifaceted dimensions of caste-based identity politics in India, offering a nuanced understanding of its complexities. Caste-Based Identity Politics in India …

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Caste-Based Identity Politics, Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Society

Reorganization of States in India

Reorganization of States in India During Independence, India was composed of two main types of political entities: the British Provinces, which were directly governed by the British Government, and the Princely States, which were ruled by native princes but were ultimately subject to the authority of the British Crown. Following the enactment of the Indian …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Public administration, Reorganization of States in India, Society

Political Parties in India

Political Parties in India Political parties in India are organized groups of individuals sharing similar political views, striving to gain power through constitutional means and working towards promoting national interests. The Election Commission of India registers political parties for electoral purposes and grants them recognition as either National or State parties based on their performance …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Parties, Political Parties in India, Political Science, Politics, Public administration

Labor Movements

Labor movements in India advocate for workers’ rights, pushing for better conditions, fair pay, and social protections through strikes, protests, and negotiations, influencing labor laws and policies nationwide. Labor Movements Introduction The industrialization journey in India was characterized by a gradual pace, with coal mining being the solitary industry that resembled modern standards until approximately …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Labor Movements, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration, Society

Farmers' Movements in India

Farmers’ Movements in India Farmers’ Movements in India boast a rich legacy dating back to the colonial era. During this period, farmers across different regions rebelled against various entities such as Zamindars, landlords, and British colonial powers, as well as feudal lords. This social movement revolves around agricultural policies and reflects a historical continuum of …

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Democracy, Farmers’ Movements, Farmers’ Movements in India, good governance, Political Science, Public administration

Women's Movements in India: A Holistic Exploration

Women’s movements in India have tirelessly fought for gender equality, challenging societal norms and advocating for women’s rights across all spheres of life, from education and politics to social and legal reforms. These movements have played a crucial role in empowering women and reshaping the country’s social landscape. Women’s Movements in India Introduction: The advent …

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Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Public administration, Society, Women’s Movements

Civil Society in India

Understanding Civil Society: Civil society is a multifaceted concept encompassing a broad array of civic organizations, grassroots movements, advocacy groups, and voluntary associations. It embodies the collective voice and actions of citizens who come together to address common concerns, advance shared values, and contribute to societal well-being. Unlike governmental institutions and private enterprises, civil society …

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Civil Society, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Society

New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy aims to liberalize and rejuvenate the economy through market-oriented reforms while maintaining state control over key sectors, fostering a mixed economy model. New Economic Policy  Introduction: The economic landscape of post-independence India was shaped by a confluence of historical factors, ideological inclinations, and pragmatic aspirations. The leaders of newly-independent India, deeply …

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good governance, New Economic Policy, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration

Five Year Plans

Five Year Plans: Blueprints for India’s economic development Introduction: Economic planning in India has been a cornerstone of its developmental journey, tracing back to the early 20th century. Since its inception in 1951 with the First Five-Year Plan, India’s planning initiatives have undergone significant evolution and adaptation to address the nation’s socio-economic challenges. This article …

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Economic planning, Five Year Plans, good governance, Political Science, Public administration

India and SADC (South African Development Community)

India and SADC (South African Development Community) Introduction: India’s relationship with the South African Development Community (SADC) represents a strategic pillar of its foreign policy towards Africa. SADC, established in 1980, comprises 16 member states, spanning across Southern Africa. The alliance aims to promote regional integration, socioeconomic development, and political stability in the region. India’s …

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Foreign Policy, India and SADC (South African Development Community), International Relations, Political Science, SADC (South African Development Community)

Sovereignty

Sovereignty Introduction The inception of sovereignty coincides with the rise of nation-states in Europe, a transformative period marked by the consolidation of centralized power under monarchs. This epoch witnessed the zenith of state authority, as monarchs asserted their dominion over disparate territories, laying the groundwork for the modern concept of sovereignty. However, sovereignty’s roots delve …

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Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Sovereignty

Arctic Council

Introduction: In the face of rapid environmental, economic, and geopolitical changes in the Arctic region, the Arctic Council has emerged as a crucial forum for fostering cooperation among Arctic states and indigenous communities. Established in 1996, the Arctic Council serves as a platform for dialogue, collaboration, and joint action on issues ranging from environmental protection …

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Arctic Council, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

New Development Bank

Introduction: In an era marked by global economic interdependence and the imperative of sustainable development, the emergence of the New Development Bank (NDB) represents a significant milestone in international financial architecture. Conceived as a response to the inadequacies of existing multilateral institutions, the NDB embodies a commitment to fostering inclusive growth, infrastructure development, and environmental …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, New Development Bank, Political Science

New International Economic Order

Introduction: In the tumultuous geopolitical landscape of the 1970s, the concept of the New International Economic Order (NIEO) emerged as a rallying cry for developing nations seeking to redress centuries of economic exploitation and inequality. Against the backdrop of decolonization, the Cold War rivalry, and rising social movements, the NIEO represented a bold vision for …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, New International Economic Order, Political Science

Bretton Woods System

Introduction: The Bretton Woods system stands as a cornerstone in the annals of international monetary history, representing a concerted effort by the global community to rebuild shattered economies and foster stability in the aftermath of World War II. Conceived during the seminal 1944 United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, this …

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Bretton Woods System, Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC), headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands, stands as the world’s first permanent international criminal tribunal. Established through the adoption of the Rome Statute in July 1998, it officially entered into force in 2002, aiming to address and prosecute individuals for heinous international crimes. The ICC operates under the jurisdiction to prosecute …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Criminal Court, International Relations, Political Science

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), hailed as the world’s largest trading agreement, emerged as a transformative force in the global economic arena. Originating from negotiations dating back to the ASEAN Cambodia summit in 2012, RCEP aimed to facilitate the seamless flow of products and services across its diverse member …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, RCEP, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration Introduction: The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), an esteemed intergovernmental organization headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands, has played a pivotal role in fostering peaceful resolutions to international disputes since its establishment in 1899. This article delves into the history, functions, and significance of the PCA, highlighting its role as a …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Political Science

Human Rights

Introduction Human rights, stemming from the core essence of humanity, represent a contemporary iteration of natural rights with a rich historical backdrop. This comprehensive article delves into the nuanced facets of human rights, exploring their universality, legal underpinnings, inherent characteristics, and the three generations of rights. From historical antecedents to the modern international framework, we …

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Education, Foreign Policy, Human Rights, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

International Terrorism

International terrorism, an intricate global challenge, involves the strategic use of violence to instill fear and achieve multifaceted objectives. This comprehensive exploration delves into the historical roots, nuanced characteristics, and detailed analysis of various types of terrorism, highlighting the evolving landscape of this global menace. International Terrorism Defining International Terrorism: Internationally recognized definitions from entities …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Terrorism

Migration

Migration Introduction Migration, a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, involves the movement of people either permanently or temporarily, driven by a myriad of factors such as economic opportunities, political dynamics, and social considerations. This intricate process manifests on a global scale, involving transitions between countries or within a single nation. A poignant aspect of migration revolves …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Migration, Political Science

OPEC

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Introduction: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), established in 1960 at the Baghdad Conference, has evolved into a crucial intergovernmental organization that plays a pivotal role in managing the global supply of oil. Comprising significant oil-exporting nations, OPEC aims to regulate oil prices, prevent market …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, OPEC, Political Science

BRICS

BRICS Introduction BRICS, an acronym representing five prominent emerging national economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, has become a compelling force in the global arena. Since its inception, this alliance has significantly impacted the economic, political, and social landscape of the world. In this detailed blog, we will delve into the history, …

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BRICS, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

India and the Gulf Cooperation Council

India and the Gulf Cooperation Council Introduction: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has evolved into a significant geopolitical entity, comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, since its establishment in 1981. Positioned as a regional political and economic alliance, the GCC strives to achieve closer unity among the energy-rich Gulf …

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Foreign Policy, Gulf Cooperation Council, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

The World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Trade Organization Introduction: The World Trade Organization (WTO) stands as the linchpin of the global economic landscape, orchestrating a multifaceted system that goes beyond merely setting trade rules. The genesis of the WTO can be traced back to the landmark 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, a pact that marked a paradigm shift from the General Agreement …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, Political Science, World Trade Organization, WTO

World Health Organization

World Health Organization (WHO) Introduction: Established in 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) emerged as the pioneer in global health organizations, a key player in the United Nations system. Nestled in the picturesque city of Geneva, Switzerland, WHO operates under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (UN ECOSOC). April 7th marks …

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Education, International Relations, Political Science, WHO, World Health Organization

Power

Power, in general, is the capacity to influence or control the behavior of others. In international relations, power operates through military strength, economic leverage, diplomatic alliances, and cultural influence. States use these tools to pursue their interests, shape global norms, and maintain or enhance their position in the international system. In the intricate tapestry of …

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good governance, International Relations, Political Science, Politics, Power, Society

Security in International Relations

Security in International Relations Security, a complex and multifaceted concept, undergoes meticulous examination through various lenses. Barry Buzan’s comprehensive view introduces a five-fold framework that includes political, economic, societal, environmental, and military aspects, forming the bedrock of a holistic security discourse. In the realm of international relations, the concept of securitization takes center stage. Pioneered by …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Security, Western Political thought

International War Treaties

Ensuring international peace necessitates the careful orchestration of arms control through diplomatic channels and the establishment of treaties. This comprehensive article meticulously examines key historical agreements, elucidating their origins, objectives, and lasting impacts on the global geopolitical landscape. Important International War Treaties and Agreements Some Important International Treaties – Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Treaty of …

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Education, International Relations, International War Treaties, Political Science, Western Political thought

Louis Althusser

Structural Marxism in international relations analyzes global politics through class struggle, capitalist exploitation, and unequal power dynamics, advocating for revolutionary change. Structural Marxism in the International Arena Introduction Within the realm of international relations, Structural Marxism provides a distinctive analytical framework that views global politics through the prism of class struggle and the dynamics of …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Structural Marxism, Western Political thought

Social Constructivism

Social Constructivism in International Relations posits that states’ behaviors and identities are socially constructed through interactions and shared understandings. It emphasizes the role of norms, beliefs, and discourse in shaping international cooperation, conflict, and institutions. Social Constructivism in International Relations Introduction The theory of constructivism in International Relations (IR) is not a recent phenomenon but …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, , Western Political thought

Postmodernism in International Relations

Postmodernism in International relations deconstructs power, truth, and knowledge, emphasizing subjectivity and context over universal narratives, challenging traditional structures and advocating for plurality and inclusivity. Postmodernism in International Relations Introduction: Postmodernism challenges the conventional notion that reality is a fixed entity universally understood by humans. Instead, it posits that individuals construct their own realities, marking …

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International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Postmodernism in International Relations

Feminist Perspectives in International Relations

Feminist perspectives in international relations critically analyze power structures, challenge gender biases, and strive for equality, inclusion, and the recognition of women’s agency in shaping global politics and policies. Feminist Perspectives in International Relations Introduction: In the realm of International Relations, the feminist perspective has emerged as a transformative force, challenging conventional ideologies and advocating …

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Feminist Perspective, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science

Idealism in International Relations

Idealism in International Relations Introduction: Idealism, a foundational school of thought in International Relations (IR), aspires to revolutionize the global landscape by eradicating multifaceted challenges, including war, hunger, inequality, tyranny, force, suppression, and violence from international relations. This comprehensive approach envisions a utopian world free from such evils, placing faith in reason, science, and education …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, Idealism, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) stands as a landmark agreement that reshaped economic relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Conceived as a trilateral trade bloc, NAFTA came into force on January 1, 1994, marking the culmination of efforts to create a more integrated and barrier-free economic environment within North America. This …

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Foreign Policy, Global World, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, NAFTA, North American Free Trade Agreement

Raisina Dialogue

Raisina Dialogue The Raisina Dialogue, established in 2016, has become India’s premier conference on geopolitics and geo-economics, providing a platform for high-level discussions on pressing global issues. Organized annually in New Delhi by the Ministry of External Affairs in collaboration with the Observer Research Foundation, this multi-stakeholder event brings together policymakers, business leaders, and experts …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Raisina Dialogue, World politics

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) stands as a multifaceted alliance, navigating the intricate intersections of politics, economics, and military affairs in the Eurasian region. This detailed examination delves into the historical origins, membership dynamics, key organizational structures, geopolitical significance, recent developments, and collaborative endeavors, providing a comprehensive understanding of the SCO’s …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, SCO, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, World politics

African Union

African Union Introduction: The African Union (AU), a continental union comprising 55 member states, has emerged as a pivotal force in shaping Africa’s collective future. Formed as the successor to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 2002, the AU has set ambitious objectives, fostering unity, eliminating vestiges of colonization, and driving economic development. This …

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African Union, International Relations, World politics

BBIN

BBIN | Roads to Resilience Introduction: Back in 1996, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal joined hands to establish the South Asian Growth Quadrangle with a vision to enhance various sectors such as energy, power, trade, investment, transport, and tourism. This collaborative effort laid the groundwork for the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, initiated …

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BBIN, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Politics, Public administration

QUAD

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, known as the Quad, is a strategic security discussion involving Australia, India, Japan, and the United States. Member countries engage in talks to maintain this dialogue. The Quad’s primary aim is to safeguard the strategic sea routes in the Indo-Pacific, ensuring they remain free from military or political influence, and promote …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, QUAD, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

Gujral Doctrine

Gujral Doctrine Introduction The Gujral Doctrine, named after former Indian Prime Minister I.K. Gujral, encapsulates a set of five principles that serve as a guideline for conducting foreign relations with India’s neighbouring countries, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Formulated during I.K. Gujral’s tenure as the External Affairs Minister in the H.D. Deve …

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Foreign Policy, Gujral Doctrine, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

Act East Policy

Act East Policy Introduction: In the dynamic arena of international relations, India’s foreign policy has undergone a noteworthy shift with the evolution from the Look East Policy to the Act East Policy. Originally initiated by former Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao in 1992, the Look East Policy primarily aimed at fostering economic integration with Southeast …

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Act East Policy, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations

BIMSTEC

BIMSTEC The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) represents a dynamic international alliance, bringing together seven nations from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Comprising India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan, and Nepal, this diverse consortium collectively contributes to 22% of the global population, with a combined gross domestic product …

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BIMSTEC, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

Indo-Russian Relations

The intricate tapestry of India-Russia relations, woven since the 1971 ‘Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation,’ reveals a rich and enduring partnership that spans political, strategic, and military spheres. This robust collaboration, born during the Cold War, has not only weathered geopolitical shifts but has also evolved into a multifaceted alliance that remains relevant in …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, Indo-Russian Relations, International Relations, Political Science

Cold War

The Cold War, an epochal conflict spanning from the late 1940s to the early 1990s, emerged as a multifaceted struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, delineating global politics into two opposing ideological blocs. This comprehensive exploration delves into the nuanced political dynamics that defined the Cold War, examining its origins, the formation …

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Cold War, Political Science, Politics

World Bank: Components, Functions, and Global Influence

World Bank: Components, Functions, and Global Influence The World Bank Group (WBG) stands as a linchpin in the realm of international development, comprising five distinct entities, each wielding unique functions and collectively striving to uplift economies across the globe. This detailed exploration aims to unravel the intricate tapestry of the WBG, delving into the historical …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, Political Science, Public administration, World Bank

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF), conceived during the UN’s Bretton Woods Conference in July 1944, emerged as a beacon of international economic cooperation. IMF officially established on 27 December 1945 having its Headquater in Washington DC. Initially formed by 44 nations to avert a recurrence of the Great Depression, the IMF …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, IMF, International Relations, Political Science

State: Definition, History, Figures & Facts

“A community of families and villages having for its end a perfect and self sufficing life by which we mean a happy and honorable life” – Aristotle State: Definition, History, Figures & Facts Introduction: At the heart of societal organization lies the state, a concept Aristotle deemed the most universal and potent of all social …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration

United Nations

The United Nations: Quest for Global Peace and Cooperation Founded in 1945 post-World War II, the United Nations (UN) emerged as a vital international organization. The term “United Nations” was coined in 1942 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Second World War. The name was officially adopted when representatives from 26 nations pledged …

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Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Politics, United Nations

European Union

European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe. Croatia became the latest member, joining on July 1, 2013. It was established with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and officially came into existence on November 1, 1993. The Headquarters of EU …

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Diplomacy, European Union, Foreign Policy, International Relations

India-EU Relations

India-EU Relations The diplomatic ties between India and the European Union (EU) have traversed a complex and multifaceted journey since the early 1960s. A pivotal moment in this trajectory was the 1994 EU-India Cooperation Agreement, setting the stage for a strategic partnership that officially crystallized in 2004. The core of this enduring relationship has been …

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Diplomacy, European Union, Foreign Policy, India-EU Relations, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

ASEAN: Unity, Collaboration, and Regional Prosperity

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also known as ‘Flying Bees’ stands as a pivotal inter-governmental organization uniting 10 South-East Asian countries. Established on August 8, 1967, by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, ASEAN aims to enhance cooperation across economic, political, social, cultural, military, and educational spheres. At present, there are 10 …

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ASEAN, Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Regional Cooperation

South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) The South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has emerged as a dynamic and crucial force, bringing together the diverse nations of South Asia. It was established on December 8, 1985, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, under the leadership of General Zia Ur Rehman, the then President of Bangladesh in …

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Diplomacy, International Relations, Politics, SAARC, South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

India's Nuclear Policy

India’s Nuclear Policy India’s nuclear policy, a critical aspect of the nation’s defense and geopolitical strategy, encompasses a comprehensive set of principles guiding the deployment and use of nuclear weapons. This detailed article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of India’s nuclear doctrine, tracing its historical roots, pivotal moments, and the strategic evolution of its …

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India’s Nuclear Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

India-US Relations

The geopolitical landscape post the Cold War era witnessed a seismic shift that significantly influenced the trajectory of India-US relations. This article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of the historical background, ongoing challenges, and multifaceted areas of collaboration that characterize this strategic partnership. Historical Background Before the transformative year of 1991, India and the …

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Democracy, India-US Relations, International Relations, Political Science

India - China Relations

The intricate web of India – China Relations or Sino-Indian relations has perennially held a pivotal role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of Asia. This comprehensive article unravels the multifaceted dimensions of the relationship, delving into historical milestones, persistent challenges, and potential pathways for diplomatic resolution. Historical Background: The beginning of diplomatic ties on April …

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India – China Relations, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

Non-Alignment Movement

Non-Alignment Movement The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM), comprising 120 developing states, is a forum with roots deeply embedded in the geopolitical landscape of the Cold War. The term “non-alignment” was introduced by V K Menon in a 1953 United Nations (UN) speech. Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru later adopted it in his 1954 speech in …

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International Relations, Non-Alignment Movement, Objectives, Political Science, Western Political thought

Neoliberalism in International Relations

Neoliberalism is the most successful ideology in the world History – Perry Anderson Neoliberalism in International Relations Neoliberalism in International Relations, also known as liberal institutionalism, emerged as a theoretical perspective in response to traditional liberal and realist approaches. Unlike realism, which emphasizes power politics and self-interest, neoliberalism shifts the focus towards the role of …

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International Relations, Neoliberalism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Western Political thought

Realism and NeoRealism

Realism, a paradigm deeply ingrained in the belief that world politics is an enduring struggle among self-interested states for power and position within the anarchic international system, came to prominence during the interwar period (1919–1939). This article delves into the intricate historical context, the influential works of key scholars, and the nuanced ideas and assumptions …

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Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Western Political thought

India's Foreign Policy

India’s foreign policy navigates non-alignment, prioritizing regional stability, economic diplomacy, and strategic partnerships to foster global influence and sustainable development. Introduction Indian Foreign Policy (IFP) is a sophisticated and strategic tool meticulously designed to influence the actions of other nations in ways that benefit India. This multifaceted approach draws inspiration from Hugh Gibson’s perspective, where …

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Democracy, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, Political Science, Politics

M.N. Roy

M.N. Roy (1887–1954) was an Indian political theorist and activist who played a key role in the early development of the Communist Party of India. He was also a philosopher and advocate for radical social and economic reforms. M.N. Roy Introduction Manabendra Nath Roy, born on March 22, 1887, in Changripota, West Bengal, commenced his …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, M.N. Roy, Manabendra Nath Roy, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society

Feminism

“I do not wish women to have power over men but themselves”- Mary Wollstonecraft Introduction The term ‘feminism,’ born in the 20th century, is a powerful political force defined by two fundamental beliefs: the acknowledgment of women’s disadvantage due to their gender and the commitment to overthrow this disadvantage. This ideology challenges a deep-seated “mobilization …

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Democracy, equality, Feminism, good governance, Political Philosophy, Politics, Public administration, Western Political thought

Marxism

Marxism is a socio-economic and political theory that views society as divided into classes based on the ownership of the means of production. It advocates for a classless, communist society where the working class collectively controls these means. Introduction Embarking on a journey through the rich tapestry of social thought, we encounter Marxism, a paradigm …

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Democracy, good governance, Marxism, Political Philosophy, Politics, Public administration

Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual rights, equality, and the rule of law. It advocates for a limited government that protects personal freedoms and promotes a market-oriented economy. Introduction Liberalism, a multifaceted system of political thought, places the interests and goals of the individual above those of society or the state. …

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Democracy, good governance, Individualism, Liberalism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Society

Concept of Rights

Rights are the fundamental entitlements and freedoms that individuals possess, often protected by laws or societal norms, ensuring their autonomy and well-being. These include civil, political, economic, and social rights. Introduction Rights are the fundamental building blocks of a just and equitable society. They are more than just legal concepts; they are the bedrock upon …

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Education, good governance, Human Rights, Political Philosophy, Politics, Public administration, Rights, Society, Three Generations of rights

Right to Information Act

RTI, or Right to Information, is a fundamental democratic principle that empowers citizens to request and receive information from government institutions, fostering transparency and civic engagement. Right to Information Act: A Comprehensive Overview Introduction The Right to Information (RTI) Act of 2005 stands as a crucial pillar of democratic governance in India. It was introduced …

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citizen grievances, Democracy, Education, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration, Right to Information Act, Right to Information Act 2005

Social Movements

Social movements are organized efforts to drive social or political change or resist change through collective action and advocacy. Introduction Social movements have long been a driving force for change in society, bringing together like-minded individuals with a common purpose. These movements are a testament to the power of collective action and their ability to …

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Comparative Politics, Difference between Old and New Social movements, Education, New Social Movements, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, , Society, Western Political thought

Constitutionalism: Comparative study of Constitutions around the world

Constitutionalism is the principle that a government’s authority is derived from and limited by a constitution, ensuring the rule of law and protection of individual rights. It establishes a framework for governance based on fundamental laws and principles. Constitutionalism Introduction In the complex world of politics and governance, constitutionalism stands as a beacon of hope …

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American Constitution, British Constitution, Comparative Politics, Comparative study of Constitutions, Constitutionalism, Constitutions, France Constitution, Political Science, Politics, Society

Dependency Theory

Dependency theory is a socio-economic concept suggesting that underdevelopment in many countries is a result of their economic dependence on and exploitation by more developed nations. It posits that this dependency perpetuates unequal power dynamics and hinders progress in the less developed countries. Dependency Theory Introduction In the realm of international politics, Dependency Theory and …

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Comparative Politics, Dependency Theory, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Theory of Underdevelopment, Theory of Underdevelopment by A. G. Frank, Western Political thought

Modernization Theory

Modernization theory posits that societies progress through stages of development, moving from traditional to modern forms, with economic growth and technological advancements playing key roles in this transformation. It suggests that Western models of development, such as industrialization and democracy, are universal and desirable for all nations. Introduction The post-World War II era witnessed a …

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5 Stages of Economic Growth by W.W Rostow, Comparative Politics, Development Theory, Modernization Theory, Political Development, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Three-Dimensional Framework for Political Development by Lucian Pye, Western Approach to Development, Western Political thought

Nationalism: European and Non-European

Nationalism is a strong sense of loyalty and devotion to one’s own nation, often characterized by a desire for its sovereignty and a shared cultural identity. It can manifest as a powerful force for unity or lead to conflicts when taken to extremes. Introduction Nationalism, a powerful concept deeply ingrained in the fabric of society, …

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Benedict Anderson, Comparative Politics, Cultural Nationalism, European nationalism, Imagined Communities, Nationalism, Non European Nationalism, Non-European Nationalism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Western Political thought

Colonialism and Decolonization

Colonialism and Decolonization are pivotal chapters in the history of human civilization, marking profound shifts in power dynamics, economies, and cultures. Colonialism is a system in which one nation extends its control over other territories, exploiting their resources and exerting dominance. Whereas, Decolonization is the process of ending colonial rule, enabling formerly colonized nations to …

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Colonialism, Cultural Expression, Decolonization, Education, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society, Western Political thought

Frederick Herzberg's two factor theory

Motivation-Hygiene Theory developed by Frederick Herzberg, posits that employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by separate factors, with motivation factors (like achievement and recognition) leading to satisfaction, while hygiene factors (such as salary and working conditions) prevent dissatisfaction. Introduction In the realm of workplace psychology and employee motivation, Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as …

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Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Political Science, Public administration, Society, Two Factor theory

Development Administration

Development administration is the process of managing government policies, programs, and resources to promote economic and social progress within a country. It focuses on efficient and effective implementation of development initiatives to improve the well-being of the population. Introduction – Origin of Development Administration In the mid-20th century, a new concept emerged in the realm …

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Development Administration, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society

Charles Lindblom

Bargaining approach propounded by Charles Lindblom emphasizes the incremental and fragmented nature of decision-making in complex political systems. It highlights the significance of negotiation and compromise among various stakeholders, acknowledging the limitations of comprehensive rational planning in policy formation. Introduction In the realm of public administration, decision-making is far from straightforward. Charles E. Lindblom, a …

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Bargaining approach, Charles Lindbloom, Incremental approach, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society

Max Weber

Max Weber’s Ideal Type bureaucracy is a theoretical model of an organization characterized by hierarchical authority, division of labor, impersonal rules, and rational decision-making, serving as a benchmark for analyzing real-world bureaucracies. Introduction – What is Bureaucracy? Bureaucracy, often seen as the backbone of modern organizations, has been the subject of extensive study and theorization. …

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Ideal type Bureaucracy, Max weber, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society

Approaches to Public Administration

The field of public administration is a complex and multifaceted one, marked by a range of approaches that have evolved over time to understand its intricacies. In this article, we’ll delve into key approaches to public administration and explore the ideas and perspectives associated with each. Different approaches to Public Administration Institutional Approach The institutional …

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Approaches of Public Administration, Governance, Political Science, Politics, Public administration

Public and Private administration

In the realm of governance and management, administration plays a pivotal role in ensuring the smooth functioning of organizations, whether they are public or private entities. Let’s delve into the concept of administration and explore how it is classified into two distinct categories: Public and Private. What is Administration?  Administration refers to the process of …

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Political Science, Public administration, Society

John Rawls

John Rawls was a prominent 20th-century philosopher known for his theory of justice as fairness, which emphasizes equality, human dignity, and a social contract framework to guide just societies. Introduction In the world of 20th-century American philosophy, few figures stand as prominently as John Rawls. Often compared to Plato in the realm of classical political …

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Idea of Social contract, John Rawls’ theory of justice, Justice as fairness, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, , Society, Veil of ignorance, Western Political thought

Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft was an 18th-century feminist philosopher and writer whose pioneering work, “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (1792), laid the foundation for modern feminism by advocating for women’s equality and education. Introduction Mary Wollstonecraft, an influential eighteenth-century feminist writer and intellectual, was born on April 27, 1759, in the vibrant city of London. …

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Education, Equal liberty to all, equality, Feminism, Mary Wollstonecraft, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Society, Western Political thought, Women rights

Mao Zedong: The Revolutionary Leader of Communist China

Mao Zedong, a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the People’s Republic of China, was known for his radical ideology and leadership, which reshaped China through massive social and political transformations, including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Introduction Mao Zedong, often referred to as the Father of Modern Communist China, holds …

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Cultural Expression, Cultural revolution, Education, Guerilla warfare, Mao Zedong, Marxism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Power and war, Society, Western Political thought

Antonio Gramsci: The Revolutionary Thinker Who Redefined Marxism and Cultural Hegemony

Antonio Gramsci was an Italian Marxist thinker who pioneered the concept of “cultural hegemony,” emphasizing the role of culture and ideology in shaping social power dynamics and advocating for a more democratic and inclusive form of socialism. Introduction Antonio Gramsci, a prominent Italian communist leader and Marxist philosopher, stands out as a beacon of originality …

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Consent theory, Critique of Economic Determinism, Cultural Expression, Cultural Hegemony, Democratic Socialism, Education, Marxism, Political Science, Politics, Prison Notebooks, Society, Western Political thought

Karl Marx: Class Struggle, Historical Materialism and Communism

Karl Marx, a 19th-century philosopher and economist, revolutionized political thought with his critique of capitalism and advocacy for a classless society. His ideas continue to influence social and economic discourse to this day. Introduction Karl Heinrich Marx, a prominent figure in the world of philosophy and social theory, was born in 1818 in Trier, a …

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Class struggle, Marxism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Theory of Alienation, Western Political thought

Frantz Fanon: Decolonization, Identity, and Liberation

Frantz Fanon was a groundbreaking political theorist who passionately advocated for decolonization through violence and explored the profound psychological effects of colonialism, leaving an enduring legacy in post-colonial studies. Introduction Frantz Fanon,  an Algerian political theorist and a remarkable figure in the realms of political theory, psychiatry, philosophy, revolution, and literature, was born in the …

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Colonialism, Decoloniazation, Dehumanization thesis by Frantz Fanon, Education, Frantz Fanon, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Western Political thought

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt was a renowned philosopher who redefined political thought by emphasizing the importance of civic engagement and the moral dimensions of politics, challenging conventional notions of power and governance. Introduction In the realm of political philosophy, Hannah Arendt stands out as a luminary whose ideas transcended traditional boundaries. Born in Germany and later becoming …

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Education, Hannah Arendt, Political Action, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society, Totalitarianism, Transformative Power, Western Political thought

John Locke: The Philosopher of Individual Rights and Enlightenment Thinker

John Locke was an influential Enlightenment philosopher known for his ideas on empiricism and natural rights, asserting that individuals have inherent rights to life, liberty, and property, which greatly influenced modern political thought. Introduction John Locke, a luminary of the Enlightenment era, was born on August 29, 1632, in the quaint town of Wrington, England. …

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Idea of Social contract, John Locke, John Locke’s Political Philosophy, Liberalism, Natural rights theory, Political Science

Niccolo Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli, the Renaissance thinker whose profound insights into politics and power continue to captivate and intrigue generations of scholars and leaders.                 Introduction:  Born in Florence, Italy in 1469, Machiavelli is a Renaissance thinker who elicits both fervent admiration and sharp criticism. As an advocate of civic republicanism, he has left a lasting impact …

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Education, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Transformative Power, Western Political thought

Aristotle: A Complete Overview of His Life, Work, and Philosophy

Aristotle, Father of Political Science is one of the most influential thinker of Western Political Thought provided extensive work on Western philosophy, Political science, and ethics, shaping the foundations of these fields and influencing centuries of thought. His works laid the groundwork for critical thinking and systematic inquiry. The question is How much we know …

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Comparative Politics, Education, Philosophy of Aristotle, Political Science, Theory of Justice by Aristotle

Plato: Exploring the Philosopher King, Educational Theory, and Communism

Introduction Plato, a student of Socrates, was born in the year 427 BC within the city of Athens. He is renowned for laying the philosophical groundwork for Greek political theory, encompassing a wide array of philosophical concepts and topics that continue to underpin the Western political tradition. Often referred to as the Father of Political …

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Ideal state of Plato, Philosopher King by Plato, Plato, Theory of Communism by Plato, Theory of Education by plato, Theory of Justice, Theory of Souls by Plato

Public Administration

Public administration is the implementation and management of government policies, programs, and services to serve the public interest and ensure effective governance. It involves tasks such as planning, budgeting, personnel management, and policy execution at various levels of government. Introduction – What is Public Administration? Public administration is a multifaceted field of study and practice …

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Evolution of Public Administration, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society

Scientific Management Theory

Scientific management theory, developed by Frederick Taylor, aims to improve efficiency and productivity in organizations by systematically analyzing and optimizing work processes through time and motion studies, standardized procedures, and incentive systems. Introduction The emergence of scientific management theory during a period of industrial expansion and crisis is widely regarded as a significant breakthrough in …

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F.W Taylor, Mental Revolution, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Scientific management theory

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow proposed motivation theory, often depicted as a “hierarchy of needs”, suggests that people are motivated by fulfilling a sequence of physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs, with each level building upon the one below. Introduction Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, often referred to as Maslow’s motivation theory, is a widely recognized framework …

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Hierarchy of Needs, Motivation Theory by Abraham Maslow, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration, Society

Human Relations Theory

Picture yourself employed by a company with a strict and inflexible workflow. In such an environment, you’re not encouraged to propose innovative interpretations, and tasks can only be executed in a singular manner. Wouldn’t you experience a sense of being just a small, interchangeable part of a larger system? What is Human Relations Theory? Human …

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Elton Mayo, Hawthorne Experiments, Human Relation theory, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration,

Politics

Politics: Origins and Evolution

Khushi Singhal

“Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable — the art of the next best.”— Otto von Bismarck Introduction The term “politics” originates from the Greek word “polis,” signifying ‘city’ or ‘state.’ It represents humanity’s endeavor to establish a societal order perceived as beneficial by its members. In ancient Greece, politics signified a groundbreaking …

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Identity Politics, Political Science, Politics, politics definition, politics news, r politics, r/politics, real clear politics, reddit politics

Regionalism in India

Regionalism in India: A Comprehensive Examination

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Regionalism in India Introduction: Regionalism, an intrinsic facet of India’s socio-political tapestry, delineates the profound attachment individuals harbor towards their respective regions. In a country as diverse as India, characterized by a kaleidoscope of ethnicities, religions, languages, and cultures, regionalism transcends mere geographical boundaries to emerge as a formidable force shaping political discourse and identity …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Regionalism, Regionalism in India, Society

Indian Polity

Making of the Indian Constitution: Colonial Legacy and National Movement Contributions

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The making of the Indian Constitution was deeply influenced by the colonial legacy, incorporating elements of British parliamentary practices and legal frameworks. Contributions from the national movement were pivotal, embedding principles of justice, liberty, and equality inspired by the struggle for independence and the vision of leaders like Gandhi and Nehru. Introduction The British presence …

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Constitution, Constitutionalism, Education, good governance, Indian Constitution, Indian Polity, Political Science, Politics

Political Science

Understanding Political Science: A Comprehensive Overview

politicalsciencesolution.com

Political Science is the systematic study of government, political processes, and political behavior. It explores the structure and functioning of political institutions, the dynamics of political activity, and the theoretical foundations of political systems and ideologies. Introduction to Political Science Political Science is a fundamental branch of social science that focuses on the foundations and …

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Education, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Society

Political Theory: An Evolving Discipline of Critical Thought and Analysis

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“Political theory is the most salient feature of politics in the past and continues to illuminate its future.”— Sheldon Wolin Introduction to Political Theory Political theory is a fundamental component of political science, recently recognized as an academic field. Historically, those involved in this discipline identified themselves as philosophers or scientists. The term “political theory” …

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Education, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Political Theory, Politics, Society

Language and Identity Politics

Language and Identity Politics in India: Exploring the Complex Interplay

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Language and identity politics in India revolve around the diverse linguistic landscape, with tensions often arising over the recognition and dominance of certain languages, reflecting broader social and political dynamics. Language and Identity Politics in India Introduction: The intricate relationship between language and identity in India is a multifaceted tapestry intricately woven with historical, cultural, …

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Democracy, good governance, Identity Politics, Language and Identity Politics, Political Science, Politics, Society

Religion and Identity Politics in India

Religion and Identity Politics in India

politicalsciencesolution.com

Religion and Identity Politics in India Religion serves as a complex mosaic of belief systems, cultural traditions, and ethical frameworks that intricately intertwined humanity with notions of spirituality and moral guidance. However, the classification of individuals based on their religious convictions has not only catalyzed profound conflicts on a global scale but has also engendered …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Religion and Identity Politics, Society

Tribal Politics and Movements

Tribal Politics and Movements

politicalsciencesolution.com

The term “tribe” typically suggests “a community denoting a collection of primitive, uncivilized groups under recognized leaders.” The initial discussion on tribal identity was influenced by those advocating for the integration of tribes into the national citizenry and others aiming for their absorption into the Hindu community. A tribe refers to a collective of individuals …

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Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Public administration, Society, Tribal Politics and Movements

Dalit Movements

Dalit Movements

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Dalit movements advocate for the rights and dignity of Dalit communities, challenging caste-based discrimination and advocating for social, economic, and political equality. Dalit Movements Introduction To put it differently, the term “Dalits’ ‘ refers to the marginalized communities commonly known as Untouchables and Tribals, officially categorized as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively. Originating from …

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Caste-Based Identity Politics, Dalit Movements, Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Politics

Caste-Based Identity Politics in India

Caste-Based Identity Politics in India

politicalsciencesolution.com

The tapestry of Indian politics is woven with the intricate threads of caste-based identity, a phenomenon deeply ingrained in the nation’s social fabric. This article seeks to delve into the historical origins, scholarly perspectives, and multifaceted dimensions of caste-based identity politics in India, offering a nuanced understanding of its complexities. Caste-Based Identity Politics in India …

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Caste-Based Identity Politics, Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Politics, Society

Reorganization of States in India

Reorganization of States in India

politicalsciencesolution.com

Reorganization of States in India During Independence, India was composed of two main types of political entities: the British Provinces, which were directly governed by the British Government, and the Princely States, which were ruled by native princes but were ultimately subject to the authority of the British Crown. Following the enactment of the Indian …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Science, Public administration, Reorganization of States in India, Society

Political Parties in India

Political Parties in India

politicalsciencesolution.com

Political Parties in India Political parties in India are organized groups of individuals sharing similar political views, striving to gain power through constitutional means and working towards promoting national interests. The Election Commission of India registers political parties for electoral purposes and grants them recognition as either National or State parties based on their performance …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Parties, Political Parties in India, Political Science, Politics, Public administration

Labor Movements

Labor Movements

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Labor movements in India advocate for workers’ rights, pushing for better conditions, fair pay, and social protections through strikes, protests, and negotiations, influencing labor laws and policies nationwide. Labor Movements Introduction The industrialization journey in India was characterized by a gradual pace, with coal mining being the solitary industry that resembled modern standards until approximately …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Labor Movements, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration, Society

Farmers' Movements in India

Farmers’ Movements in India

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Farmers’ Movements in India Farmers’ Movements in India boast a rich legacy dating back to the colonial era. During this period, farmers across different regions rebelled against various entities such as Zamindars, landlords, and British colonial powers, as well as feudal lords. This social movement revolves around agricultural policies and reflects a historical continuum of …

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Democracy, Farmers’ Movements, Farmers’ Movements in India, good governance, Political Science, Public administration

Women's Movements in India: A Holistic Exploration

Women’s Movements in India: A Holistic Exploration

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Women’s movements in India have tirelessly fought for gender equality, challenging societal norms and advocating for women’s rights across all spheres of life, from education and politics to social and legal reforms. These movements have played a crucial role in empowering women and reshaping the country’s social landscape. Women’s Movements in India Introduction: The advent …

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Democracy, good governance, Political Science, Public administration, Society, Women’s Movements

Civil Society in India

Civil Society in India

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Understanding Civil Society: Civil society is a multifaceted concept encompassing a broad array of civic organizations, grassroots movements, advocacy groups, and voluntary associations. It embodies the collective voice and actions of citizens who come together to address common concerns, advance shared values, and contribute to societal well-being. Unlike governmental institutions and private enterprises, civil society …

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Civil Society, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Society

New Economic Policy

New Economic Policy 

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The New Economic Policy aims to liberalize and rejuvenate the economy through market-oriented reforms while maintaining state control over key sectors, fostering a mixed economy model. New Economic Policy  Introduction: The economic landscape of post-independence India was shaped by a confluence of historical factors, ideological inclinations, and pragmatic aspirations. The leaders of newly-independent India, deeply …

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good governance, New Economic Policy, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Public administration

Five Year Plans

Five Year Plans: Blueprints for India’s economic development

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Five Year Plans: Blueprints for India’s economic development Introduction: Economic planning in India has been a cornerstone of its developmental journey, tracing back to the early 20th century. Since its inception in 1951 with the First Five-Year Plan, India’s planning initiatives have undergone significant evolution and adaptation to address the nation’s socio-economic challenges. This article …

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Economic planning, Five Year Plans, good governance, Political Science, Public administration

India and SADC (South African Development Community)

India and SADC (South African Development Community)

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India and SADC (South African Development Community) Introduction: India’s relationship with the South African Development Community (SADC) represents a strategic pillar of its foreign policy towards Africa. SADC, established in 1980, comprises 16 member states, spanning across Southern Africa. The alliance aims to promote regional integration, socioeconomic development, and political stability in the region. India’s …

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Foreign Policy, India and SADC (South African Development Community), International Relations, Political Science, SADC (South African Development Community)

Sovereignty

Sovereignty

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Sovereignty Introduction The inception of sovereignty coincides with the rise of nation-states in Europe, a transformative period marked by the consolidation of centralized power under monarchs. This epoch witnessed the zenith of state authority, as monarchs asserted their dominion over disparate territories, laying the groundwork for the modern concept of sovereignty. However, sovereignty’s roots delve …

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Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Sovereignty

Arctic Council

The Arctic Council: Navigating Cooperation in a Changing Arctic Landscape

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Introduction: In the face of rapid environmental, economic, and geopolitical changes in the Arctic region, the Arctic Council has emerged as a crucial forum for fostering cooperation among Arctic states and indigenous communities. Established in 1996, the Arctic Council serves as a platform for dialogue, collaboration, and joint action on issues ranging from environmental protection …

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Arctic Council, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

New Development Bank

The New Development Bank: Fostering Sustainable Development and Multilateral Cooperation

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Introduction: In an era marked by global economic interdependence and the imperative of sustainable development, the emergence of the New Development Bank (NDB) represents a significant milestone in international financial architecture. Conceived as a response to the inadequacies of existing multilateral institutions, the NDB embodies a commitment to fostering inclusive growth, infrastructure development, and environmental …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, New Development Bank, Political Science

New International Economic Order

The New International Economic Order (NIEO): A Vision for Global Economic Justice in the 1970s

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Introduction: In the tumultuous geopolitical landscape of the 1970s, the concept of the New International Economic Order (NIEO) emerged as a rallying cry for developing nations seeking to redress centuries of economic exploitation and inequality. Against the backdrop of decolonization, the Cold War rivalry, and rising social movements, the NIEO represented a bold vision for …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, New International Economic Order, Political Science

Bretton Woods System

The Bretton Woods System: Architectural Pillar of Post-War Economic Order

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Introduction: The Bretton Woods system stands as a cornerstone in the annals of international monetary history, representing a concerted effort by the global community to rebuild shattered economies and foster stability in the aftermath of World War II. Conceived during the seminal 1944 United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, this …

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Bretton Woods System, Education, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court: A Comprehensive Overview and Recent Developments

politicalsciencesolution.com

The International Criminal Court (ICC), headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands, stands as the world’s first permanent international criminal tribunal. Established through the adoption of the Rome Statute in July 1998, it officially entered into force in 2002, aiming to address and prosecute individuals for heinous international crimes. The ICC operates under the jurisdiction to prosecute …

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Education, Foreign Policy, International Criminal Court, International Relations, Political Science

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): A Landmark Trade Agreement Shaping the Asian Economic Landscape

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Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), hailed as the world’s largest trading agreement, emerged as a transformative force in the global economic arena. Originating from negotiations dating back to the ASEAN Cambodia summit in 2012, RCEP aimed to facilitate the seamless flow of products and services across its diverse member …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, RCEP, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration: A Pillar of International Dispute Resolution

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The Permanent Court of Arbitration Introduction: The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), an esteemed intergovernmental organization headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands, has played a pivotal role in fostering peaceful resolutions to international disputes since its establishment in 1899. This article delves into the history, functions, and significance of the PCA, highlighting its role as a …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Political Science

Human Rights

Human Rights: From Origins to Evolution and Beyond

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Introduction Human rights, stemming from the core essence of humanity, represent a contemporary iteration of natural rights with a rich historical backdrop. This comprehensive article delves into the nuanced facets of human rights, exploring their universality, legal underpinnings, inherent characteristics, and the three generations of rights. From historical antecedents to the modern international framework, we …

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Education, Foreign Policy, Human Rights, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

International Terrorism

International Terrorism: Origins, Characteristics, and In-Depth Analysis of Terrorism Types

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International terrorism, an intricate global challenge, involves the strategic use of violence to instill fear and achieve multifaceted objectives. This comprehensive exploration delves into the historical roots, nuanced characteristics, and detailed analysis of various types of terrorism, highlighting the evolving landscape of this global menace. International Terrorism Defining International Terrorism: Internationally recognized definitions from entities …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Terrorism

Migration

Migration: A Comprehensive Exploration

politicalsciencesolution.com

Migration Introduction Migration, a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, involves the movement of people either permanently or temporarily, driven by a myriad of factors such as economic opportunities, political dynamics, and social considerations. This intricate process manifests on a global scale, involving transitions between countries or within a single nation. A poignant aspect of migration revolves …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Migration, Political Science

OPEC

OPEC: Managing Global Oil Supply for Economic Stability

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The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Introduction: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), established in 1960 at the Baghdad Conference, has evolved into a crucial intergovernmental organization that plays a pivotal role in managing the global supply of oil. Comprising significant oil-exporting nations, OPEC aims to regulate oil prices, prevent market …

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Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, OPEC, Political Science

BRICS

BRICS: Forging a New Path in Global Politics and Economics

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BRICS Introduction BRICS, an acronym representing five prominent emerging national economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, has become a compelling force in the global arena. Since its inception, this alliance has significantly impacted the economic, political, and social landscape of the world. In this detailed blog, we will delve into the history, …

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BRICS, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

India and the Gulf Cooperation Council

“India and the Gulf Cooperation Council: Nurturing a Comprehensive Partnership”

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India and the Gulf Cooperation Council Introduction: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has evolved into a significant geopolitical entity, comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, since its establishment in 1981. Positioned as a regional political and economic alliance, the GCC strives to achieve closer unity among the energy-rich Gulf …

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Foreign Policy, Gulf Cooperation Council, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

The World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Trade Organization: A Comprehensive Exploration of Structure, Functions, and Recent Milestones”

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World Trade Organization Introduction: The World Trade Organization (WTO) stands as the linchpin of the global economic landscape, orchestrating a multifaceted system that goes beyond merely setting trade rules. The genesis of the WTO can be traced back to the landmark 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, a pact that marked a paradigm shift from the General Agreement …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, Political Science, World Trade Organization, WTO

World Health Organization

WHO

World Health Organization’s (WHO) Foundations and Functions

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World Health Organization (WHO) Introduction: Established in 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) emerged as the pioneer in global health organizations, a key player in the United Nations system. Nestled in the picturesque city of Geneva, Switzerland, WHO operates under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (UN ECOSOC). April 7th marks …

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Education, International Relations, Political Science, WHO, World Health Organization

Power

Power: A Thorough Examination of Its Definition and Constituent Elements

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Power, in general, is the capacity to influence or control the behavior of others. In international relations, power operates through military strength, economic leverage, diplomatic alliances, and cultural influence. States use these tools to pursue their interests, shape global norms, and maintain or enhance their position in the international system. In the intricate tapestry of …

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good governance, International Relations, Political Science, Politics, Power, Society

Security in International Relations

Security in International Relations

politicalsciencesolution.com

Security in International Relations Security, a complex and multifaceted concept, undergoes meticulous examination through various lenses. Barry Buzan’s comprehensive view introduces a five-fold framework that includes political, economic, societal, environmental, and military aspects, forming the bedrock of a holistic security discourse. In the realm of international relations, the concept of securitization takes center stage. Pioneered by …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Security, Western Political thought

International War Treaties

Important International War Treaties and Agreements

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Ensuring international peace necessitates the careful orchestration of arms control through diplomatic channels and the establishment of treaties. This comprehensive article meticulously examines key historical agreements, elucidating their origins, objectives, and lasting impacts on the global geopolitical landscape. Important International War Treaties and Agreements Some Important International Treaties – Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Treaty of …

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Education, International Relations, International War Treaties, Political Science, Western Political thought

Louis Althusser

Structural Marxism in the International Arena

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Structural Marxism in international relations analyzes global politics through class struggle, capitalist exploitation, and unequal power dynamics, advocating for revolutionary change. Structural Marxism in the International Arena Introduction Within the realm of international relations, Structural Marxism provides a distinctive analytical framework that views global politics through the prism of class struggle and the dynamics of …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Structural Marxism, Western Political thought

Social Constructivism

Social Constructivism in International Relations

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Social Constructivism in International Relations posits that states’ behaviors and identities are socially constructed through interactions and shared understandings. It emphasizes the role of norms, beliefs, and discourse in shaping international cooperation, conflict, and institutions. Social Constructivism in International Relations Introduction The theory of constructivism in International Relations (IR) is not a recent phenomenon but …

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Education, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, , Western Political thought

Postmodernism in International Relations

Postmodernism in International Relations

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Postmodernism in International relations deconstructs power, truth, and knowledge, emphasizing subjectivity and context over universal narratives, challenging traditional structures and advocating for plurality and inclusivity. Postmodernism in International Relations Introduction: Postmodernism challenges the conventional notion that reality is a fixed entity universally understood by humans. Instead, it posits that individuals construct their own realities, marking …

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International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Postmodernism in International Relations

Feminist Perspectives in International Relations

Feminist Perspectives in International Relations

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Feminist perspectives in international relations critically analyze power structures, challenge gender biases, and strive for equality, inclusion, and the recognition of women’s agency in shaping global politics and policies. Feminist Perspectives in International Relations Introduction: In the realm of International Relations, the feminist perspective has emerged as a transformative force, challenging conventional ideologies and advocating …

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Feminist Perspective, International Relations, Political Philosophy, Political Science

Idealism in International Relations

Idealism in International Relations: A Vision for Transformative Global Governance

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Idealism in International Relations Introduction: Idealism, a foundational school of thought in International Relations (IR), aspires to revolutionize the global landscape by eradicating multifaceted challenges, including war, hunger, inequality, tyranny, force, suppression, and violence from international relations. This comprehensive approach envisions a utopian world free from such evils, placing faith in reason, science, and education …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, Idealism, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

NAFTA: The Evolution and Criticisms of North American Economic Integration

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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) stands as a landmark agreement that reshaped economic relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Conceived as a trilateral trade bloc, NAFTA came into force on January 1, 1994, marking the culmination of efforts to create a more integrated and barrier-free economic environment within North America. This …

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Foreign Policy, Global World, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, NAFTA, North American Free Trade Agreement

Raisina Dialogue

Raisina Dialogue: Navigating Global Challenges through Diplomacy and Discourse

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Raisina Dialogue The Raisina Dialogue, established in 2016, has become India’s premier conference on geopolitics and geo-economics, providing a platform for high-level discussions on pressing global issues. Organized annually in New Delhi by the Ministry of External Affairs in collaboration with the Observer Research Foundation, this multi-stakeholder event brings together policymakers, business leaders, and experts …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Raisina Dialogue, World politics

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO): A Comprehensive Exploration of Its Evolution, Structures, and Global Impact

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Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) stands as a multifaceted alliance, navigating the intricate intersections of politics, economics, and military affairs in the Eurasian region. This detailed examination delves into the historical origins, membership dynamics, key organizational structures, geopolitical significance, recent developments, and collaborative endeavors, providing a comprehensive understanding of the SCO’s …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, SCO, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, World politics

African Union

African Union: Shaping Unity, Prosperity, and Progress Across the Continent

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African Union Introduction: The African Union (AU), a continental union comprising 55 member states, has emerged as a pivotal force in shaping Africa’s collective future. Formed as the successor to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 2002, the AU has set ambitious objectives, fostering unity, eliminating vestiges of colonization, and driving economic development. This …

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African Union, International Relations, World politics

BBIN

Roads to Resilience: Navigating the BBIN Initiative for Seamless Connectivity in South Asia

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BBIN | Roads to Resilience Introduction: Back in 1996, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal joined hands to establish the South Asian Growth Quadrangle with a vision to enhance various sectors such as energy, power, trade, investment, transport, and tourism. This collaborative effort laid the groundwork for the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, initiated …

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BBIN, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Politics, Public administration

QUAD

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)

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The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, known as the Quad, is a strategic security discussion involving Australia, India, Japan, and the United States. Member countries engage in talks to maintain this dialogue. The Quad’s primary aim is to safeguard the strategic sea routes in the Indo-Pacific, ensuring they remain free from military or political influence, and promote …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, QUAD, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

Gujral Doctrine

Gujral Doctrine: India’s Approach to Neighboring Relations

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Gujral Doctrine Introduction The Gujral Doctrine, named after former Indian Prime Minister I.K. Gujral, encapsulates a set of five principles that serve as a guideline for conducting foreign relations with India’s neighbouring countries, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Formulated during I.K. Gujral’s tenure as the External Affairs Minister in the H.D. Deve …

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Foreign Policy, Gujral Doctrine, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

Act East Policy

India’s Strategic Evolution from Look East to Act East Policy | Act East Policy

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Act East Policy Introduction: In the dynamic arena of international relations, India’s foreign policy has undergone a noteworthy shift with the evolution from the Look East Policy to the Act East Policy. Originally initiated by former Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao in 1992, the Look East Policy primarily aimed at fostering economic integration with Southeast …

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Act East Policy, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations

BIMSTEC

BIMSTEC: A Comprehensive Exploration of Regional Integration and Cooperation

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BIMSTEC The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) represents a dynamic international alliance, bringing together seven nations from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Comprising India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan, and Nepal, this diverse consortium collectively contributes to 22% of the global population, with a combined gross domestic product …

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BIMSTEC, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science

Indo-Russian Relations

Indo-Russian Relations: A Nuanced Exploration of a Time-Tested Alliance

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The intricate tapestry of India-Russia relations, woven since the 1971 ‘Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation,’ reveals a rich and enduring partnership that spans political, strategic, and military spheres. This robust collaboration, born during the Cold War, has not only weathered geopolitical shifts but has also evolved into a multifaceted alliance that remains relevant in …

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Education, Foreign Policy, India’s Foreign Policy, Indo-Russian Relations, International Relations, Political Science

Cold War

Cold War: A Detailed Exploration of Political Complexities from Inception to Resolution

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The Cold War, an epochal conflict spanning from the late 1940s to the early 1990s, emerged as a multifaceted struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, delineating global politics into two opposing ideological blocs. This comprehensive exploration delves into the nuanced political dynamics that defined the Cold War, examining its origins, the formation …

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Cold War, Political Science, Politics

World Bank: Components, Functions, and Global Influence

World Bank: Components, Functions, and Global Influence

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World Bank: Components, Functions, and Global Influence The World Bank Group (WBG) stands as a linchpin in the realm of international development, comprising five distinct entities, each wielding unique functions and collectively striving to uplift economies across the globe. This detailed exploration aims to unravel the intricate tapestry of the WBG, delving into the historical …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, International Relations, Political Science, Public administration, World Bank

International Monetary Fund

IMF

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

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International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF), conceived during the UN’s Bretton Woods Conference in July 1944, emerged as a beacon of international economic cooperation. IMF officially established on 27 December 1945 having its Headquater in Washington DC. Initially formed by 44 nations to avert a recurrence of the Great Depression, the IMF …

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Foreign Policy, good governance, IMF, International Relations, Political Science

State: Definition, History, Figures & Facts

State: Definition, History, Figures & Facts

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“A community of families and villages having for its end a perfect and self sufficing life by which we mean a happy and honorable life” – Aristotle State: Definition, History, Figures & Facts Introduction: At the heart of societal organization lies the state, a concept Aristotle deemed the most universal and potent of all social …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Public administration

United Nations

The United Nations: Quest for Global Peace and Cooperation

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The United Nations: Quest for Global Peace and Cooperation Founded in 1945 post-World War II, the United Nations (UN) emerged as a vital international organization. The term “United Nations” was coined in 1942 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Second World War. The name was officially adopted when representatives from 26 nations pledged …

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Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Politics, United Nations

European Union

European Union: Origins, Structures, and Achievements

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European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe. Croatia became the latest member, joining on July 1, 2013. It was established with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and officially came into existence on November 1, 1993. The Headquarters of EU …

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Diplomacy, European Union, Foreign Policy, International Relations

India-EU Relations

India-EU Relations

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India-EU Relations The diplomatic ties between India and the European Union (EU) have traversed a complex and multifaceted journey since the early 1960s. A pivotal moment in this trajectory was the 1994 EU-India Cooperation Agreement, setting the stage for a strategic partnership that officially crystallized in 2004. The core of this enduring relationship has been …

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Diplomacy, European Union, Foreign Policy, India-EU Relations, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

ASEAN: Unity, Collaboration, and Regional Prosperity

ASEAN: Unity, Collaboration, and Regional Prosperity

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The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also known as ‘Flying Bees’ stands as a pivotal inter-governmental organization uniting 10 South-East Asian countries. Established on August 8, 1967, by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, ASEAN aims to enhance cooperation across economic, political, social, cultural, military, and educational spheres. At present, there are 10 …

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ASEAN, Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Regional Cooperation

South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

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South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) The South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has emerged as a dynamic and crucial force, bringing together the diverse nations of South Asia. It was established on December 8, 1985, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, under the leadership of General Zia Ur Rehman, the then President of Bangladesh in …

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Diplomacy, International Relations, Politics, SAARC, South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

India's Nuclear Policy

India’s Nuclear Policy: Historical Evolution, Strategic Framework, and Global Implications

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India’s Nuclear Policy India’s nuclear policy, a critical aspect of the nation’s defense and geopolitical strategy, encompasses a comprehensive set of principles guiding the deployment and use of nuclear weapons. This detailed article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of India’s nuclear doctrine, tracing its historical roots, pivotal moments, and the strategic evolution of its …

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India’s Nuclear Policy, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

India-US Relations

India-US Relations

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The geopolitical landscape post the Cold War era witnessed a seismic shift that significantly influenced the trajectory of India-US relations. This article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of the historical background, ongoing challenges, and multifaceted areas of collaboration that characterize this strategic partnership. Historical Background Before the transformative year of 1991, India and the …

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Democracy, India-US Relations, International Relations, Political Science

India - China Relations

India – China Relations

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The intricate web of India – China Relations or Sino-Indian relations has perennially held a pivotal role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of Asia. This comprehensive article unravels the multifaceted dimensions of the relationship, delving into historical milestones, persistent challenges, and potential pathways for diplomatic resolution. Historical Background: The beginning of diplomatic ties on April …

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India – China Relations, International Relations, Political Science, Politics

Non-Alignment Movement

Non-Alignment Movement: Historical Roots, Objectives, and Global Significance

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Non-Alignment Movement The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM), comprising 120 developing states, is a forum with roots deeply embedded in the geopolitical landscape of the Cold War. The term “non-alignment” was introduced by V K Menon in a 1953 United Nations (UN) speech. Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru later adopted it in his 1954 speech in …

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International Relations, Non-Alignment Movement, Objectives, Political Science, Western Political thought

Neoliberalism in International Relations

Neoliberalism in International Relations

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Neoliberalism is the most successful ideology in the world History – Perry Anderson Neoliberalism in International Relations Neoliberalism in International Relations, also known as liberal institutionalism, emerged as a theoretical perspective in response to traditional liberal and realist approaches. Unlike realism, which emphasizes power politics and self-interest, neoliberalism shifts the focus towards the role of …

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International Relations, Neoliberalism, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Western Political thought

Realism and NeoRealism

Realism and Neo-Realism in International Relations: An In-Depth Exploration

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Realism, a paradigm deeply ingrained in the belief that world politics is an enduring struggle among self-interested states for power and position within the anarchic international system, came to prominence during the interwar period (1919–1939). This article delves into the intricate historical context, the influential works of key scholars, and the nuanced ideas and assumptions …

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Political Philosophy, Political Science, Politics, Western Political thought

India's Foreign Policy

India’s Foreign Policy: A Comprehensive Exploration

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India’s foreign policy navigates non-alignment, prioritizing regional stability, economic diplomacy, and strategic partnerships to foster global influence and sustainable development. Introduction Indian Foreign Policy (IFP) is a sophisticated and strategic tool meticulously designed to influence the actions of other nations in ways that benefit India. This multifaceted approach draws inspiration from Hugh Gibson’s perspective, where …

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Democracy, Foreign Policy, good governance, India’s Foreign Policy, Political Science, Politics

M.N. Roy

M.N. Roy: A Revolutionary Visionary Shaping India’s Destiny

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M.N. Roy (1887–1954) was an Indian political theorist and activist who played a key role in the early development of the Communist Party of India. He was also a philosopher and advocate for radical social and economic reforms. M.N. Roy Introduction Manabendra Nath Roy, born on March 22, 1887, in Changripota, West Bengal, commenced his …

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Democracy, Education, good governance, M.N. Roy, Manabendra Nath Roy, Political Philosophy,